Welcome to Open Carnage

We're a community of gamers and technology enthusiasts, with a very unique means of rewarding content creation and support. Have a wander to see why we're worth the time!

Krazychic

Metallic hydrogen has been created for the first time

19 posts in this topic

148548370028319.jpg

 

More than 80 years after it was first predicted, physicists have created metallic hydrogen - a mysterious form of hydrogen that could be capable of superconducting electricity without resistance at room temperature.

 

Spoiler

Scientists have long suspected that hydrogen could exist as a metal in certain parts of the Universe, but this is the first time metallic hydrogen has ever been created on Earth, and the material is even stranger and more fascinating than scientists imagined.

 

"This is the holy grail of high-pressure physics," says lead researcher Isaac F. Silvera from Harvard University. "It's the first-ever sample of metallic hydrogen on Earth, so when you're looking at it, you're looking at something that's never existed before."

 

The periodic table can be broadly be split up into two categories - metals and non-metals. Among many other properties, metals are lustrous (shiny), good conductors, and usually solid at room temperature, while non-metals have a dull appearance, and are poor conductors.

 

As most of us learnt at high school, hydrogen - the first element on the periodic table - is a non-metal.

 

But back in 1935, researchers predicted that under certain conditions, this common and oft-studied element could have its atoms bind together so tightly, the material wouldn't just take on metallic properties, it could actually become a metal.

 

But those conditions aren't easy to achieve - they involved achieving incredibly high pressures at extremely low temperatures, which is why for more than 80 years, and despite numerous attempts, no one had been able to prove it was possible, until now.

 

"The most exciting part is we pressurised hydrogen gas to sufficiently high pressures and we saw it convert into a metal," Silvera told ScienceAlert.

 

Silvera has been trying to create metallic hydrogen for 45 years.

 

"The hydrogen went from being transparent, to non-transparent and black, and suddenly it became lustrous," he explained. "We could actually see it become a metal."

 

This isn't just exciting as a proof-of-concept in the physics world - although it's definitely that. Metallic hydrogen has been the source of so much speculation over the years because it's predicted to have some incredible properties.

 

Most importantly, physicists think that metallic hydrogen could be a room-temperature superconductor, which would mean the material could conduct electricity with zero resistance - and without having to be cooled to crazy temperatures first.

 

We know of many superconducting materials already - we use them to create the powerful magnetic fields in our MRI machines and in maglev trains - but they're only capable of achieving superconductivity at temperatures below –269 degrees Celsius (–452.2 degrees Fahrenheit), which makes them expensive and non-practical for many purposes.

 

If scientists could achieve that same superconductivity at room temperature, it would be huge, because it means we could create things like power lines that don't lose any electricity between the power plant and your home. Right now, the grid loses as much as 15 percent of its energy as heat, due to resistance.

 

The material could also be the most powerful rocket propellant ever discovered, with incredible energy stored up in its bonds capable of blasting us to distant worlds.

 

To be clear, the metallic hydrogen that Silvera and his team have created is only around 1 to 1.5 microns thick, and 10 microns in diameter, so it's tiny.

 

And until peer-review had confirmed that their sample was the real deal, they were hesitant to perform too many tests on it, so we have no evidence so far to suggest that the material is a superconductor. That's something that will be investigated in the months to come.

 

But for now, we know the sample is real, and it's been stable in Silvera's lab since October.

 

Researchers have claimed that they've made the early stages of metallic hydrogen in the past - and even claimed evidence of metallic hydrogen itself. But these reports have never been verified. This latest claim will now have its chance to have holes poked in it by critics, but so far the sample has withstood all relevant metallic testing.

 

To create the sample, the team trapped hydrogen gas inside a tiny diamond casket, chilled it to 5.5 Kelvin (–267.65 degrees Celsius and –449.77 degrees Fahrenheit) and put it under incredibly high pressure.

 

And when we say high pressure, we mean high pressure. Back in 1935, it was predicted that metallic hydrogen would emerge at 25 gigapascals (GPa) of pressure. But Silvera and his team finally achieved it at pressures between 465 and 495 GPa - nearly 20 times higher than initially predicted.

 

For perspective, 1 GPa equals 1 million kilopascals (KPa), and the average pressure at sea level on Earth is 101.325 KPa.

 

The team quickly saw its appearance change, but to verify that what they'd created was metallic hydrogen, they used spectroscopic measurements, including measuring its reflectivity, and showed that what was originally a standard hydrogen gas (H2) had transformed into an atomic metal.

 

Now that we know metallic hydrogen exists, there are many questions left to be answered. The biggest of these is whether or not metallic hydrogen is a liquid or a solid - as researchers have predicted it could be both.

 

So far, Silvera and his team believe that what they've created is a solid, but they'll be performing more detailed analyses of the material now that it's been verified (something they weren't willing to risk before in case they inadvertently destroyed the fragile sample). 

 

They'll also be hooking the metal up with current to test whether it really is a superconductor at room temperature - something that's possible whether it's a liquid or solid. 

 

"It’s going to be challenging but we’re going to try," says Silvera.

 

Oddly enough, Silvera says that it's also likely that metallic hydrogen could be metastable - which means that even if you release the pressure it will remain metallic.

 

A common example of a metastable material is diamond, which is a metastable form of carbon. To make diamond, you put graphite under incredible pressure and heat - something that happens naturally deep below Earth's surface.

 

But even when you dig diamonds up out of the ground, they remain diamonds.

 

The same might be true with metallic hydrogen, and this is something that will also be tested once all other analysis has been performed on the sample, just in case the predictions are wrong, and the material disperses back into a gas when the pressure is lifted.

 

"We’re going to work on this sample for a while, and then we’ll release the pressure and see if the sample persists as metallic hydrogen," says Silvera. "And then we’re going to load another sample."

 

There are exciting times ahead, and many more discoveries to be made. But today we just proved that the most common of all the Universe's elements can exist in an entirely new form, and that's cause enough for us to celebrate.

 

Source


Rumors are carried by haters
Spread by fools
and
Accepted by idiots

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Dislike the ads? Log in or register to never see them again!

https://www.engadget.com/2017/01/27/first-hydrogen-metal-created-on-earth-draws-critical-doubt/

 

So apparently it's likely to be aluminum oxide. Most of the community seems against it.

14 hours ago, Tucker933 said:

Needs a video of the process happening! It sounded really cool.

hydrogen-metal-first-time-2017-01-27-01.

WaeV likes this

 

Quote

Unless it's one of those bastards that comes back to the thread later and just says, "Never mind, fixed it," without saying why. Then your new job is to find that person like Liam Neeson from Taken and make them pay.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
2 hours ago, Tucker933 said:

Those are pictures. =p

 

 

giphy.gif

 

 

 

 

 

 

Also:

 

 

vid·e·o
ˈvidēō/
noun
 
  1. 1.
    the recording, reproducing, or broadcasting of moving visual images.
  2. 2.
    a recording of moving visual images made digitally or on videotape.
    "they sat down to watch a video"
    •  
    •  
       
       
       
       
    •  
       
 

 

 

 

So yes, a GIF is a video as it's moving visual images.


 

Quote

Unless it's one of those bastards that comes back to the thread later and just says, "Never mind, fixed it," without saying why. Then your new job is to find that person like Liam Neeson from Taken and make them pay.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
8 minutes ago, DeadHamster said:

So yes, a GIF is a video as it's moving visual images.

 

Nope, only if the GIF has a frame rate of at least 24 FPS. Everything below that is flickering and not movement!

Since your GIF has only 3 frames and isn't moving at >24 FPS, it isn't a video! :P

[/smart-ass]

Tucker933 likes this

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
1 hour ago, tarikja said:

Nope, only if the GIF has a frame rate of at least 24 FPS. Everything below that is flickering and not movement!

Since your GIF has only 3 frames and isn't moving at >24 FPS, it isn't a video! :P

[/smart-ass]

What if I have have a 24 FPS GIF where each image is shown for 8 frames?

 

Also, 24 FPS is an arbitrary value that is really little more than an excuse for studios to output choppy movies.


status.png?customhost=ProtonNebula.com:2302

status.png?customhost=ProtonNebula.com:2333&format=userbar

competent.png

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
11 hours ago, 002 said:

What if I have have a 24 FPS GIF where each image is shown for 8 frames?

 

Also, 24 FPS is an arbitrary value that is really little more than an excuse for studios to output choppy movies.

What if I have a monitor with a ratio of 160:90 instead of 16:9? Would I have a bigger screen or am I just inflating information?

 

Yeah, 24 FPS is somehow arbitrary but also widely accepted as the lowest value to present motion picture. You could go higher or lower but you can not present motion with just 3 frames. At least not without some heavy editing.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Create an account or sign in to comment

You need to be a member in order to leave a comment

Create an account

Sign up for a new account in our community. It's easy!


Register a new account

Sign in

Already have an account? Sign in here.


Sign In Now
  • Recently Browsing   0 members

    No registered users viewing this page.